• 分享几种常见的 JavaScript 设计模式
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介绍

设计模式是针对常见软件问题的高级面向对象解决方案。模式是关于对象的可重用设计和交互。在讨论复杂的设计解决方案时,每个模式都有一个名称并成为词汇表的一部分。本文主要介绍几种常见的设计模式。大多数情况下,它们遵循原始图案设计的结构和意图。这些示例演示了每种模式背后的原则,但并未针对 JavaScript 进行优化。


01.Abstract Factory (抽象工厂模式)
Abstract Factory创建由共同主题相关的对象。在面向对象编程中,工厂是创建其他对象的对象。抽象工厂抽象出新创建的对象共享的主题。

//堆代码 duidaima.com
function Employee(name) {
    this.name = name;

    this.say = function () {
        console.log("I am employee " + name);
    };
}

function EmployeeFactory() {

    this.create = function (name) {
        return new Employee(name);
    };
}

function Vendor(name) {
    this.name = name;

    this.say = function () {
        console.log("I am vendor " + name);
    };
}

function VendorFactory() {

    this.create = function (name) {
        return new Vendor(name);
    };
}

function run() {
    var persons = [];
    var employeeFactory = new EmployeeFactory();
    var vendorFactory = new VendorFactory();

    persons.push(employeeFactory.create("Joan DiSilva"));
    persons.push(employeeFactory.create("Tim O'Neill"));
    persons.push(vendorFactory.create("Gerald Watson"));
    persons.push(vendorFactory.create("Nicole McNight"));

    for (var i = 0, len = persons.length; i < len; i++) {
        persons[i].say();
    }
}
02.Builder (建造者模式)
Builder 模式允许客户端仅通过指定类型和内容来构建复杂对象,细节完全对客户隐藏。


function Shop() {
    this.construct = function (builder) {
        builder.step1();
        builder.step2();
        return builder.get();
    }
}

function CarBuilder() {
    this.car = null;

    this.step1 = function () {
        this.car = new Car();
    };

    this.step2 = function () {
        this.car.addParts();
    };

    this.get = function () {
        return this.car;
    };
}

function TruckBuilder() {
    this.truck = null;

    this.step1 = function () {
        this.truck = new Truck();
    };

    this.step2 = function () {
        this.truck.addParts();
    };

    this.get = function () {
        return this.truck;
    };
}

function Car() {
    this.doors = 0;

    this.addParts = function () {
        this.doors = 4;
    };

    this.say = function () {
        console.log("I am a " + this.doors + "-door car");
    };
}

function Truck() {
    this.doors = 0;

    this.addParts = function () {
        this.doors = 2;
    };

    this.say = function () {
        console.log("I am a " + this.doors + "-door truck");
    };
}

function run() {
    var shop = new Shop();
    var carBuilder = new CarBuilder();
    var truckBuilder = new TruckBuilder();
    var car = shop.construct(carBuilder);
    var truck = shop.construct(truckBuilder);

    car.say();
    truck.say();
}
03、Factory Method (工厂方法)
Factory Method 按照客户的指示创建新对象。在 JavaScript 中创建对象的一种方法是使用 new 运算符调用构造函数。 然而,在某些情况下,客户端不知道或不应知道要实例化多个候选对象中的哪一个。 Factory Method 允许客户端委托对象创建,同时仍然保留对要实例化的类型的控制。


var Factory = function () {
    this.createEmployee = function (type) {
        var employee;

        if (type === "fulltime") {
            employee = new FullTime();
        } else if (type === "parttime") {
            employee = new PartTime();
        } else if (type === "temporary") {
            employee = new Temporary();
        } else if (type === "contractor") {
            employee = new Contractor();
        }

        employee.type = type;

        employee.say = function () {
            console.log(this.type + ": rate " + this.hourly + "/hour");
        }

        return employee;
    }
}

var FullTime = function () {
    this.hourly = "$12";
};

var PartTime = function () {
    this.hourly = "$11";
};

var Temporary = function () {
    this.hourly = "$10";
};

var Contractor = function () {
    this.hourly = "$15";
};

function run() {

    var employees = [];
    var factory = new Factory();

    employees.push(factory.createEmployee("fulltime"));
    employees.push(factory.createEmployee("parttime"));
    employees.push(factory.createEmployee("temporary"));
    employees.push(factory.createEmployee("contractor"));

    for (var i = 0, len = employees.length; i < len; i++) {
        employees[i].say();
    }
}
04、Adapter(适配器模式)
Adapter模式将一个接口(对象的属性和方法)转换为另一个接口。Adapter允许编程组件协同工作,否则由于接口不匹配而无法协同工作。适配器(Adapter)模式也称为包装器模式。


// old interface

function Shipping() {
    this.request = function (zipStart, zipEnd, weight) {
        // ...
        return "$49.75";
    }
}

// new interface

function AdvancedShipping() {
    this.login = function (credentials) { /* ... */ };
    this.setStart = function (start) { /* ... */ };
    this.setDestination = function (destination) { /* ... */ };
    this.calculate = function (weight) { return "$39.50"; };
}

// adapter interface

function ShippingAdapter(credentials) {
    var shipping = new AdvancedShipping();

    shipping.login(credentials);

    return {
        request: function (zipStart, zipEnd, weight) {
            shipping.setStart(zipStart);
            shipping.setDestination(zipEnd);
            return shipping.calculate(weight);
        }
    };
}

function run() {

    var shipping = new Shipping();
    var credentials = { token: "30a8-6ee1" };
    var adapter = new ShippingAdapter(credentials);

    // original shipping object and interface

    var cost = shipping.request("78701", "10010", "2 lbs");
    console.log("Old cost: " + cost);

    // new shipping object with adapted interface

    cost = adapter.request("78701", "10010", "2 lbs");

    console.log("New cost: " + cost);
}

结论
当我们结束我们的 JavaScript 设计模式之旅时,很明显这些强大的工具在制作可维护、可扩展和高效的代码方面发挥着至关重要的作用。通过理解和实施这些模式,您不仅会提升您的编程技能,还会为您自己和您的团队成员创造更愉快的开发体验。请记住,设计模式不是一种放之四海而皆准的解决方案。分析项目的独特需求和约束以确定哪些模式将带来最大价值至关重要。

不断学习和试验不同的设计模式将使您能够做出明智的决策并为您的项目选择最佳方法。将设计模式整合到您的工作流中可能需要投入时间和精力,但从长远来看,这是值得的。当您掌握编写优雅、模块化和高效的 JavaScript 代码的艺术时,您会发现您的应用程序变得更加健壮,您的调试过程更易于管理,并且您的整体开发体验更加愉快。

因此,继续探索 JavaScript 设计模式的世界,并希望您的代码更易于维护、可扩展和高效。
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