• 如何使用core dump调试死锁问题
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  • 张蜚
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这篇文章,我们研究一下如何调试一个 死锁问题,可以下载一下 https://github.com/dotnet/samples/tree/main/core/diagnostics/DiagnosticScenarios 源码,程序运行后,你会发现api无响应而且线程会不断增长,然后你会学习到用不同的工具去分析这个死锁问题。

生成 core dump
为了能找出程序无响应的原因,core dump 提供了当时线程的状态以及各种存在线程竞争的锁,接下来运行如下命令:
dotnet run
为了能找到 进程ID,使用如下命令。
dotnet-trace ps
可以自己查看一下 shell 输出,我们的进程是 4807,你的进程号可能不一样,接下来访问URL: https://localhost:5001/api/diagscenario/deadlock ,你会发现这个api请求会一直得不到response,等 10-15s 后,使用下面的命令收集一个 dump 文件。
dotnet-dump collect -p 4807

分析 core dump
为了能够对生成好的 dump 进行分析,使用如下命令 dotnet-dump analyze 命令,参考如下:
dotnet-dump analyze  ~/.dotnet/tools/core_20190513_143916
因为是一个莫名的无响应问题,所以你可能想先对进程中的所有线程有一个整体的感知。
> threads
*0 0x1DBFF (121855)
 1 0x1DC01 (121857)
 2 0x1DC02 (121858)
 3 0x1DC03 (121859)
 4 0x1DC04 (121860)
 5 0x1DC05 (121861)
 6 0x1DC06 (121862)
 7 0x1DC07 (121863)
 8 0x1DC08 (121864)
 9 0x1DC09 (121865)
 10 0x1DC0A (121866)
 11 0x1DC0D (121869)
 12 0x1DC0E (121870)
 13 0x1DC10 (121872)
 14 0x1DC11 (121873)
 15 0x1DC12 (121874)
 16 0x1DC13 (121875)
 17 0x1DC14 (121876)
 18 0x1DC15 (121877)
 19 0x1DC1C (121884)
 20 0x1DC1D (121885)
 21 0x1DC1E (121886)
 22 0x1DC21 (121889)
 23 0x1DC22 (121890)
 24 0x1DC23 (121891)
 25 0x1DC24 (121892)
 26 0x1DC25 (121893)
...
...
 317 0x1DD48 (122184)
 318 0x1DD49 (122185)
 319 0x1DD4A (122186)
 320 0x1DD4B (122187)
 321 0x1DD4C (122188)
输出中展示了进程中的所有线程ID,以及相关的 调试器线程ID 和 操作系统线程ID。

接下来我们有必要了解下每个线程都在做什么?可以用 clrstack 查看线程栈,为了能查看所有的线程栈,使用如下命令:
clrstack -all

  ...
  ...
  ...
        Child SP               IP Call Site
00007F2AE37B5680 00007f305abc6360 [GCFrame: 00007f2ae37b5680]
00007F2AE37B5770 00007f305abc6360 [GCFrame: 00007f2ae37b5770]
00007F2AE37B57D0 00007f305abc6360 [HelperMethodFrame_1OBJ: 00007f2ae37b57d0] System.Threading.Monitor.ReliableEnter(System.Object, Boolean ByRef)
00007F2AE37B5920 00007F2FE392B31F testwebapi.Controllers.DiagScenarioController.<deadlock>b__3_1() [/home/marioh/webapi/Controllers/diagscenario.cs @ 36]
00007F2AE37B5950 00007F2FE392B46D System.Threading.ExecutionContext.RunInternal(System.Threading.ExecutionContext, System.Threading.ContextCallback, System.Object) [/__w/3/s/src/System.Private.CoreLib/shared/System/Threading/ExecutionContext.cs @ 201]
00007F2AE37B5CA0 00007f30593044af [GCFrame: 00007f2ae37b5ca0]
00007F2AE37B5D70 00007f30593044af [DebuggerU2MCatchHandlerFrame: 00007f2ae37b5d70]
OS Thread Id: 0x1dc82
        Child SP               IP Call Site
00007F2AE2FB4680 00007f305abc6360 [GCFrame: 00007f2ae2fb4680]
00007F2AE2FB4770 00007f305abc6360 [GCFrame: 00007f2ae2fb4770]
00007F2AE2FB47D0 00007f305abc6360 [HelperMethodFrame_1OBJ: 00007f2ae2fb47d0] System.Threading.Monitor.ReliableEnter(System.Object, Boolean ByRef)
00007F2AE2FB4920 00007F2FE392B31F testwebapi.Controllers.DiagScenarioController.<deadlock>b__3_1() [/home/marioh/webapi/Controllers/diagscenario.cs @ 36]
00007F2AE2FB4950 00007F2FE392B46D System.Threading.ExecutionContext.RunInternal(System.Threading.ExecutionContext, System.Threading.ContextCallback, System.Object) [/__w/3/s/src/System.Private.CoreLib/shared/System/Threading/ExecutionContext.cs @ 201]
00007F2AE2FB4CA0 00007f30593044af [GCFrame: 00007f2ae2fb4ca0]
00007F2AE2FB4D70 00007f30593044af [DebuggerU2MCatchHandlerFrame: 00007f2ae2fb4d70]
OS Thread Id: 0x1dc83
        Child SP               IP Call Site
00007F2AE27B3680 00007f305abc6360 [GCFrame: 00007f2ae27b3680]
00007F2AE27B3770 00007f305abc6360 [GCFrame: 00007f2ae27b3770]
00007F2AE27B37D0 00007f305abc6360 [HelperMethodFrame_1OBJ: 00007f2ae27b37d0] System.Threading.Monitor.ReliableEnter(System.Object, Boolean ByRef)
00007F2AE27B3920 00007F2FE392B31F testwebapi.Controllers.DiagScenarioController.<deadlock>b__3_1() [/home/marioh/webapi/Controllers/diagscenario.cs @ 36]
00007F2AE27B3950 00007F2FE392B46D System.Threading.ExecutionContext.RunInternal(System.Threading.ExecutionContext, System.Threading.ContextCallback, System.Object) [/__w/3/s/src/System.Private.CoreLib/shared/System/Threading/ExecutionContext.cs @ 201]
00007F2AE27B3CA0 00007f30593044af [GCFrame: 00007f2ae27b3ca0]
00007F2AE27B3D70 00007f30593044af [DebuggerU2MCatchHandlerFrame: 00007f2ae27b3d70]
OS Thread Id: 0x1dc84
        Child SP               IP Call Site
00007F2AE1FB2680 00007f305abc6360 [GCFrame: 00007f2ae1fb2680]
00007F2AE1FB2770 00007f305abc6360 [GCFrame: 00007f2ae1fb2770]
00007F2AE1FB27D0 00007f305abc6360 [HelperMethodFrame_1OBJ: 00007f2ae1fb27d0] System.Threading.Monitor.ReliableEnter(System.Object, Boolean ByRef)
00007F2AE1FB2920 00007F2FE392B31F testwebapi.Controllers.DiagScenarioController.<deadlock>b__3_1() [/home/marioh/webapi/Controllers/diagscenario.cs @ 36]
00007F2AE1FB2950 00007F2FE392B46D System.Threading.ExecutionContext.RunInternal(System.Threading.ExecutionContext, System.Threading.ContextCallback, System.Object) [/__w/3/s/src/System.Private.CoreLib/shared/System/Threading/ExecutionContext.cs @ 201]
00007F2AE1FB2CA0 00007f30593044af [GCFrame: 00007f2ae1fb2ca0]
00007F2AE1FB2D70 00007f30593044af [DebuggerU2MCatchHandlerFrame: 00007f2ae1fb2d70]
OS Thread Id: 0x1dc85
        Child SP               IP Call Site
00007F2AE17B1680 00007f305abc6360 [GCFrame: 00007f2ae17b1680]
00007F2AE17B1770 00007f305abc6360 [GCFrame: 00007f2ae17b1770]
00007F2AE17B17D0 00007f305abc6360 [HelperMethodFrame_1OBJ: 00007f2ae17b17d0] System.Threading.Monitor.ReliableEnter(System.Object, Boolean ByRef)
00007F2AE17B1920 00007F2FE392B31F testwebapi.Controllers.DiagScenarioController.<deadlock>b__3_1() [/home/marioh/webapi/Controllers/diagscenario.cs @ 36]
00007F2AE17B1950 00007F2FE392B46D System.Threading.ExecutionContext.RunInternal(System.Threading.ExecutionContext, System.Threading.ContextCallback, System.Object) [/__w/3/s/src/System.Private.CoreLib/shared/System/Threading/ExecutionContext.cs @ 201]
00007F2AE17B1CA0 00007f30593044af [GCFrame: 00007f2ae17b1ca0]
00007F2AE17B1D70 00007f30593044af [DebuggerU2MCatchHandlerFrame: 00007f2ae17b1d70]
OS Thread Id: 0x1dc86
        Child SP               IP Call Site
00007F2AE0FB0680 00007f305abc6360 [GCFrame: 00007f2ae0fb0680]
00007F2AE0FB0770 00007f305abc6360 [GCFrame: 00007f2ae0fb0770]
00007F2AE0FB07D0 00007f305abc6360 [HelperMethodFrame_1OBJ: 00007f2ae0fb07d0] System.Threading.Monitor.ReliableEnter(System.Object, Boolean ByRef)
00007F2AE0FB0920 00007F2FE392B31F testwebapi.Controllers.DiagScenarioController.<deadlock>b__3_1() [/home/marioh/webapi/Controllers/diagscenario.cs @ 36]
00007F2AE0FB0950 00007F2FE392B46D System.Threading.ExecutionContext.RunInternal(System.Threading.ExecutionContext, System.Threading.ContextCallback, System.Object) [/__w/3/s/src/System.Private.CoreLib/shared/System/Threading/ExecutionContext.cs @ 201]
00007F2AE0FB0CA0 00007f30593044af [GCFrame: 00007f2ae0fb0ca0]
00007F2AE0FB0D70 00007f30593044af [DebuggerU2MCatchHandlerFrame: 00007f2ae0fb0d70]
OS Thread Id: 0x1dc87
        Child SP               IP Call Site
00007F2AE07AF680 00007f305abc6360 [GCFrame: 00007f2ae07af680]
00007F2AE07AF770 00007f305abc6360 [GCFrame: 00007f2ae07af770]
00007F2AE07AF7D0 00007f305abc6360 [HelperMethodFrame_1OBJ: 00007f2ae07af7d0] System.Threading.Monitor.ReliableEnter(System.Object, Boolean ByRef)
00007F2AE07AF920 00007F2FE392B31F testwebapi.Controllers.DiagScenarioController.<deadlock>b__3_1() [/home/marioh/webapi/Controllers/diagscenario.cs @ 36]
00007F2AE07AF950 00007F2FE392B46D System.Threading.ExecutionContext.RunInternal(System.Threading.ExecutionContext, System.Threading.ContextCallback, System.Object) [/__w/3/s/src/System.Private.CoreLib/shared/System/Threading/ExecutionContext.cs @ 201]
00007F2AE07AFCA0 00007f30593044af [GCFrame: 00007f2ae07afca0]
00007F2AE07AFD70 00007f30593044af [DebuggerU2MCatchHandlerFrame: 00007f2ae07afd70]
OS Thread Id: 0x1dc88
        Child SP               IP Call Site
00007F2ADFFAE680 00007f305abc6360 [GCFrame: 00007f2adffae680]
00007F2ADFFAE770 00007f305abc6360 [GCFrame: 00007f2adffae770]
00007F2ADFFAE7D0 00007f305abc6360 [HelperMethodFrame_1OBJ: 00007f2adffae7d0] System.Threading.Monitor.ReliableEnter(System.Object, Boolean ByRef)
00007F2ADFFAE920 00007F2FE392B31F testwebapi.Controllers.DiagScenarioController.<deadlock>b__3_1() [/home/marioh/webapi/Controllers/diagscenario.cs @ 36]
00007F2ADFFAE950 00007F2FE392B46D System.Threading.ExecutionContext.RunInternal(System.Threading.ExecutionContext, System.Threading.ContextCallback, System.Object) [/__w/3/s/src/System.Private.CoreLib/shared/System/Threading/ExecutionContext.cs @ 201]
00007F2ADFFAECA0 00007f30593044af [GCFrame: 00007f2adffaeca0]
00007F2ADFFAED70 00007f30593044af [DebuggerU2MCatchHandlerFrame: 00007f2adffaed70]
...
...
Observing the callstacks for all 300+ threads shows a pattern where a majority of the threads share a common callstack:

Console

Copy
OS Thread Id: 0x1dc88
        Child SP               IP Call Site
00007F2ADFFAE680 00007f305abc6360 [GCFrame: 00007f2adffae680]
00007F2ADFFAE770 00007f305abc6360 [GCFrame: 00007f2adffae770]
00007F2ADFFAE7D0 00007f305abc6360 [HelperMethodFrame_1OBJ: 00007f2adffae7d0] System.Threading.Monitor.ReliableEnter(System.Object, Boolean ByRef)
00007F2ADFFAE920 00007F2FE392B31F testwebapi.Controllers.DiagScenarioController.<deadlock>b__3_1() [/home/marioh/webapi/Controllers/diagscenario.cs @ 36]
00007F2ADFFAE950 00007F2FE392B46D System.Threading.ExecutionContext.RunInternal(System.Threading.ExecutionContext, System.Threading.ContextCallback, System.Object) [/__w/3/s/src/System.Private.CoreLib/shared/System/Threading/ExecutionContext.cs @ 201]
00007F2ADFFAECA0 00007f30593044af [GCFrame: 00007f2adffaeca0]
00007F2ADFFAED70 00007f30593044af [DebuggerU2MCatchHandlerFrame: 00007f2adffaed70]
观察这超300+ 的线程栈,发现很多线程都是类似下面的线程栈。
OS Thread Id: 0x1dc88
        Child SP               IP Call Site
00007F2ADFFAE680 00007f305abc6360 [GCFrame: 00007f2adffae680]
00007F2ADFFAE770 00007f305abc6360 [GCFrame: 00007f2adffae770]
00007F2ADFFAE7D0 00007f305abc6360 [HelperMethodFrame_1OBJ: 00007f2adffae7d0] System.Threading.Monitor.ReliableEnter(System.Object, Boolean ByRef)
00007F2ADFFAE920 00007F2FE392B31F testwebapi.Controllers.DiagScenarioController.<deadlock>b__3_1() [/home/marioh/webapi/Controllers/diagscenario.cs @ 36]
00007F2ADFFAE950 00007F2FE392B46D System.Threading.ExecutionContext.RunInternal(System.Threading.ExecutionContext, System.Threading.ContextCallback, System.Object) [/__w/3/s/src/System.Private.CoreLib/shared/System/Threading/ExecutionContext.cs @ 201]
00007F2ADFFAECA0 00007f30593044af [GCFrame: 00007f2adffaeca0]
00007F2ADFFAED70 00007f30593044af [DebuggerU2MCatchHandlerFrame: 00007f2adffaed70]
从调用栈看,api请求已经进去了 deadlock 方法,然后在 Monitor.ReliableEnter 处卡住,这就说明有其他线程已经进去了这个临界区。
接下来我们要寻找到底是哪一个线程正在持有锁?可以用 syncblk 来获取更多线程锁信息。
> syncblk
Index         SyncBlock MonitorHeld Recursion Owning Thread Info          SyncBlock Owner
   43 00000246E51268B8          603         1 0000024B713F4E30 5634  28   00000249654b14c0 System.Object
   44 00000246E5126908            3         1 0000024B713F47E0 51d4  29   00000249654b14d8 System.Object
-----------------------------
Total           344
CCW             1
RCW             2
ComClassFactory 0
Free            0
这里有两个列需要注意下:
1.MonitorHeld
它记录了这个持有锁当前有多少 持有线程 和 等待线程。
2.Owning Thread Info
它表示当前持有锁的线程信息。

到这里,我们看到有两个线程 0x5634 和 0x51d4 持有了一个锁,接下来可以切到各自线程看看里面到底做了什么?可以用 setthread 和 clrstack 命令。

首先看一下第一个线程 0x5634,我们发现它正在获取一个锁,但通过 syncblk 我们知道这个线程已经持有了一个锁,这问题就大了,可以想象所有等待这个持有锁的线程将会被无限期等待。
> setthread 28
> clrstack
OS Thread Id: 0x5634 (28)
        Child SP               IP Call Site
0000004E46AFEAA8 00007fff43a5cbc4 [GCFrame: 0000004e46afeaa8]
0000004E46AFEC18 00007fff43a5cbc4 [GCFrame: 0000004e46afec18]
0000004E46AFEC68 00007fff43a5cbc4 [HelperMethodFrame_1OBJ: 0000004e46afec68] System.Threading.Monitor.Enter(System.Object)
0000004E46AFEDC0 00007FFE5EAF9C80 testwebapi.Controllers.DiagScenarioController.DeadlockFunc() [C:\Users\dapine\Downloads\Diagnostic_scenarios_sample_debug_target\Controllers\DiagnosticScenarios.cs @ 58]
0000004E46AFEE30 00007FFE5EAF9B8C testwebapi.Controllers.DiagScenarioController.<deadlock>b__3_0() [C:\Users\dapine\Downloads\Diagnostic_scenarios_sample_debug_target\Controllers\DiagnosticScenarios.cs @ 26]
0000004E46AFEE80 00007FFEBB251A5B System.Threading.ThreadHelper.ThreadStart_Context(System.Object) [/_/src/System.Private.CoreLib/src/System/Threading/Thread.CoreCLR.cs @ 44]
0000004E46AFEEB0 00007FFE5EAEEEEC System.Threading.ExecutionContext.RunInternal(System.Threading.ExecutionContext, System.Threading.ContextCallback, System.Object) [/_/src/System.Private.CoreLib/shared/System/Threading/ExecutionContext.cs @ 201]
0000004E46AFEF20 00007FFEBB234EAB System.Threading.ThreadHelper.ThreadStart() [/_/src/System.Private.CoreLib/src/System/Threading/Thread.CoreCLR.cs @ 93]
0000004E46AFF138 00007ffebdcc6b63 [GCFrame: 0000004e46aff138]
0000004E46AFF3A0 00007ffebdcc6b63 [DebuggerU2MCatchHandlerFrame: 0000004e46aff3a0]
第二个线程情况类似,剩下的 300+ 线程也差不多都是在这些 死锁 的 lock 上无限期的等待。
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