• .NET Core中AddJwtBearer身份认证的用法
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开发环境
系统版本: win10
.NET SDK: NET8
开发工具:vscode
注意:以下示例中的端口、token等需替换成你的环境中的信息

创建项目
运行以下命令来创建一个空的 Web 项目,并添加 Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authentication.JwtBearer NuGet 包:
dotnet new web -o MyJWT
cd MyJWT
dotnet add package Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authentication.JwtBearer
将 Program.cs 的内容替换为以下代码(略微改动):
using System.Security.Claims;

var builder = WebApplication.CreateBuilder(args);
 // 堆代码 duidaima.com
builder.Services.AddAuthorization();
// 默认的Scheme是Bearer
// builder.Services.AddAuthentication("Bearer").AddJwtBearer();
builder.Services.AddAuthentication().AddJwtBearer();
var app = builder.Build();
app.UseAuthorization();
app.MapGet("/", () => "Hello, World!");
app.MapGet("/secret", (ClaimsPrincipal user) => $"Hello {user.Identity?.Name}. My secret")
    .RequireAuthorization();

app.Run();
运行项目并访问接口返回以下内容:
PS D:\Learn\MyJWT> curl.exe -i http:///localhost:5276
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=utf-8
Date: Mon, 04 Dec 2023 00:43:03 GMT    
Server: Kestrel
Transfer-Encoding: chunked

Hello, World!

创建 JWT
PS D:\Learn\MyJWT> dotnet user-jwts create
New JWT saved with ID 'c28b968'.
Name: Lingpeng

Token: eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJ1bmlxdWVfbmFtZSI6IkxpbmdwZW5nIiwic3ViIjoiTGluZ3BlbmciLCJqdGkiOiJjMjhiOTY4IiwiYXVkIjpbImh0dHA6Ly9sb2NhbGhvc3Q6Mjk3NTQiLCJodHRwczovL2xvY2FsaG9zdDo0NDM2MCIsImh0dHA6Ly9sb2NhbGhvc3Q6NTI3NiIsImh0dHBzOi8vbG9jYWxob3N0OjcyNTMiXSwibmJmIjoxNzAxNjQ5Nzk2LCJleHAiOjE3MDk1MTIxOTYsImlhdCI6MTcwMTY0OTc5NiwiaXNzIjoiZG90bmV0LXVzZXItand0cyJ9.l52s9_7oNjIKL96TysgdE0k970fUS9FoLTu2xRs-IPo
这个命令做了3件事:
1.更新项目的 appsettings.Development.json,添加了Authentication节点
2.更新项目的 MyJWT.csproj,添加了UserSecretsId 配置
3.创建了机密文件 %APPDATA%\Microsoft\UserSecrets\<secrets_GUID>\user-jwts.json与%APPDATA%\Microsoft\UserSecrets\<secrets_GUID>\secrets.json,机密管理参考
我们看下这两个机密文件
user-jwts.json
{
    "c28b968": {
        "Id": "c28b968",
        "Scheme": "Bearer",
        "Name": "Lingpeng",
        "Audience": "http://localhost:29754, https://localhost:44360, http://localhost:5276, https://localhost:7253",
        "NotBefore": "2023-12-04T00:29:56+00:00",
        "Expires": "2024-03-04T00:29:56+00:00",
        "Issued": "2023-12-04T00:29:56+00:00",
        "Token": "eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJ1bmlxdWVfbmFtZSI6IkxpbmdwZW5nIiwic3ViIjoiTGluZ3BlbmciLCJqdGkiOiJjMjhiOTY4IiwiYXVkIjpbImh0dHA6Ly9sb2NhbGhvc3Q6Mjk3NTQiLCJodHRwczovL2xvY2FsaG9zdDo0NDM2MCIsImh0dHA6Ly9sb2NhbGhvc3Q6NTI3NiIsImh0dHBzOi8vbG9jYWxob3N0OjcyNTMiXSwibmJmIjoxNzAxNjQ5Nzk2LCJleHAiOjE3MDk1MTIxOTYsImlhdCI6MTcwMTY0OTc5NiwiaXNzIjoiZG90bmV0LXVzZXItand0cyJ9.l52s9_7oNjIKL96TysgdE0k970fUS9FoLTu2xRs-IPo",
        "Scopes": [],
        "Roles": [],
        "CustomClaims": {}
    }
}
secrets.json
{
    "Authentication:Schemes:Bearer:SigningKeys": [
        {
            "Id": "ff20683d",
            "Issuer": "dotnet-user-jwts",
            "Value": "lDOFmIuEDelFKU0zAaLoT2qYOFDRZGDDTv5FyTa36V8=",
            "Length": 32
        }
    ]
}

测试JWT
我们重新运行程序,用直接访问与携带token两种方式访问/secret接口
PS D:\Learn\MyJWT> curl.exe -i http://localhost:5276/secret
HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized
Content-Length: 0
Date: Mon, 04 Dec 2023 00:43:25 GMT
Server: Kestrel
WWW-Authenticate: Bearer

PS D:\Learn\MyJWT> 
PS D:\Learn\MyJWT> 
PS D:\Learn\MyJWT> curl.exe -i -H "Authorization: Bearer eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJ1bmlxdWVfbmFtZSI6IkxpbmdwZW5nIiwic3ViIjoiTGluZ3BlbmciLCJqdGkiOiJjMjhiOTY4IiwiYXVkIjpbImh0dHA6Ly9sb2NhbGhvc3Q6Mjk3NTQiLCJodHRwczovL2xvY2FsaG9zdDo0NDM2MCIsImh0dHA6Ly9sb2NhbGhvc3Q6NTI3NiIsImh0dHBzOi8vbG9jYWxob3N0OjcyNTMiXSwibmJmIjoxNzAxNjQ5Nzk2LCJleHAiOjE3MDk1MTIxOTYsImlhdCI6MTcwMTY0OTc5NiwiaXNzIjoiZG90bmV0LXVzZXItand0cyJ9.l52s9_7oNjIKL96TysgdE0k970fUS9FoLTu2xRs-IPo" http://localhost:5276/secret
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=utf-8
Date: Mon, 04 Dec 2023 00:45:42 GMT
Server: Kestrel
Transfer-Encoding: chunked

Hello Lingpeng. My secret
至此我们已经实现了JwtBearer的初步使用。

一点点改动
示例采用了机密管理,我们也可以把机密文件中的内容迁移至项目中(推荐用机密管理),我们修改MyJWT.csproj与appsettings.Development.json如下
<Project Sdk="Microsoft.NET.Sdk.Web">

  <PropertyGroup>
    <TargetFramework>net8.0</TargetFramework>
    <Nullable>enable</Nullable>
    <ImplicitUsings>enable</ImplicitUsings>
    <!-- <UserSecretsId>88d7c163-def1-4747-b01f-cefed382beae</UserSecretsId> -->
  </PropertyGroup>

  <ItemGroup>
    <PackageReference Include="Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authentication.JwtBearer" Version="8.0.0" />
  </ItemGroup>

</Project>
{
  "Logging": {
    "LogLevel": {
      "Default": "Information",
      "Microsoft.AspNetCore": "Warning"
    }
  },
  "Authentication": {
    "Schemes": {
      "Bearer": {
        "ValidAudiences": [
          "http://localhost:29754",
          "https://localhost:44360",
          "http://localhost:5276",
          "https://localhost:7253"
        ],
        "ValidIssuer": "dotnet-user-jwts",
        "SigningKeys": [
          {
            "Id": "ff20683d",
            "Issuer": "dotnet-user-jwts",
            "Value": "lDOFmIuEDelFKU0zAaLoT2qYOFDRZGDDTv5FyTa36V8=",
            "Length": 32
          }
        ]
      }
    }
  }
}
修改完成后实现相同的功能。

JWT Token生成示例
app.MapGet("/login", (string UserName, string Password, [FromServices] IOptionsMonitor<JwtBearerOptions> optionsMonitor) =>
{
    // 1. 密码验证
    // TODO

    // 2. 生成  
    var parameters = optionsMonitor.Get(JwtBearerDefaults.AuthenticationScheme).TokenValidationParameters;
    var signingKey = parameters.IssuerSigningKeys.First();
    var signingCredentials = new SigningCredentials(signingKey, SecurityAlgorithms.HmacSha256Signature);
    var header = new JwtHeader(signingCredentials);
    var payload = new JwtPayload {
        { JwtRegisteredClaimNames.UniqueName, UserName },
        { JwtRegisteredClaimNames.Iss, parameters.ValidIssuers.First() },
        { JwtRegisteredClaimNames.Aud, parameters.ValidAudiences },
        { JwtRegisteredClaimNames.Iat, DateTimeOffset.UtcNow.ToUnixTimeSeconds() },
        { JwtRegisteredClaimNames.Nbf, DateTimeOffset.UtcNow.ToUnixTimeSeconds() },
        { JwtRegisteredClaimNames.Exp, DateTimeOffset.UtcNow.AddMinutes(30).ToUnixTimeSeconds() }
    };
    var jwtSecurityToken = new JwtSecurityToken(header, payload);
    var jwtSecurityTokenHandler = new JwtSecurityTokenHandler();
    var token = jwtSecurityTokenHandler.WriteToken(jwtSecurityToken);
    return token;
});
进行一下验证
PS D:\Learn\MyJWT> curl.exe -i "http://localhost:5276/login?username=admin&password=1111"
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=utf-8
Date: Mon, 04 Dec 2023 05:03:36 GMT
Server: Kestrel
Transfer-Encoding: chunked

eyJhbGciOiJodHRwOi8vd3d3LnczLm9yZy8yMDAxLzA0L3htbGRzaWctbW9yZSNobWFjLXNoYTI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJ1bmlxdWVfbmFtZSI6ImFkbWluIiwiaXNzIjoiZG90bmV0LXVzZXItand0cyIsImF1ZCI6WyJodHRwOi8vbG9jYWxob3N0OjI5NzU0IiwiaHR0cHM6Ly9sb2NhbGhvc3Q6NDQzNjAiLCJodHRwOi8vbG9jYWxob3N0OjUyNzYiLCJodHRwczovL2xvY2FsaG9zdDo3MjUzIl0sImlhdCI6MTcwMTY2NjIxNiwibmJmIjoxNzAxNjY2MjE2LCJleHAiOjE3MDE2NjgwMTZ9.P9t7vIFfM7cddRPs4OQUTVVdo57nWTLt_ea2UynGUpo
PS D:\Learn\MyJWT>
PS D:\Learn\MyJWT>
PS D:\Learn\MyJWT> curl.exe -i -H "Authorization: Bearer eyJhbGciOiJodHRwOi8vd3d3LnczLm9yZy8yMDAxLzA0L3htbGRzaWctbW9yZSNobWFjLXNoYTI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJ1bmlxdWVfbmFtZSI6ImFkbWluIiwiaXNzIjoiZG90bmV0LXVzZXItand0cyIsImF1ZCI6WyJodHRwOi8vbG9jYWxob3N0OjI5NzU0IiwiaHR0cHM6Ly9sb2NhbGhvc3Q6NDQzNjAiLCJodHRwOi8vbG9jYWxob3N0OjUyNzYiLCJodHRwczovL2xvY2FsaG9zdDo3MjUzIl0sImlhdCI6MTcwMTY2NjIxNiwibmJmIjoxNzAxNjY2MjE2LCJleHAiOjE3MDE2NjgwMTZ9.P9t7vIFfM7cddRPs4OQUTVVdo57nWTLt_ea2UynGUpo" http://localhost:5276/secret
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=utf-8
Date: Mon, 04 Dec 2023 05:03:50 GMT
Server: Kestrel
Transfer-Encoding: chunked

Hello admin. My secret

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